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Bufete Iglesias abogados Salamanca

GRAN VIA 28, 3º D SALAMANCA Salamanca 37001 ES

Bufete Iglesias


María Jesús Iglesias García

Iltre. Colegio Abogados de Salamanca.

Miembro de la Asociación Europea De Abogados

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los excesos y las posturas incriminatorial del juzgador durante el juicio

Posted on January 6, 2015 at 8:10 AM
El Diario la Ley publica una interesantisima sentencia del Tribunal Supremo que dispone la
Nulidad de sentencia por parcialidad del Presidente de la Sala,  quien formuló hasta 78 preguntas manteniendo una actitud activa en pro de la tesis acusatoria (TS, 2ª, S 27 Nov. 2014. Rec. 862/2014()Diario La Ley, Nº 8452, Sección La Sentencia del día, 5 de Enero de 2015, Año XXXVI, Editorial LA LEYLA LEY 7743/2014) Hace referencia expresa al exceso en el uso moderado de las facultades judiciales de aclaración y dirección del debate en el desarrollo de la prueba testifical y declaración de acusados durante el juicio oral que impone el art. 708 LECrim.

El proceso se había incoado contra un conductor, con antecedentes penales por conducción temeraria y bajo la influencia de bebidas alcohólicas, involucrado en un nuevo siniestro tras salirse de la calzada con un Ferrari. Con la finalidad de evitar verse inmerso en una nueva causa penal por delito de quebrantamiento de condena, así como para gestionar con la compañía de seguros que ésta afrontara la reparación del automóvil, avisó a un conocido suyo guardia civil, elaborando ambos un parte falso de siniestro en el que designaron falazmente como conductor al padre del acusado. La AP Oviedo dictó sentencia condenatoria por delitos de falsedad y estafa intentada, contra la seguridad vial y encubrimiento. Disconforme con la sentencia de instancia, la defensa planteó recurso de casación entre otros motivos, por violación del derecho fundamental a un proceso con todas las garantías, alegando que durante el desarrollo del juicio oral la Sala juzgadora no mantuvo una posición imparcial sino una actitud activa en pro del éxito de la tesis acusatoria, con la que se habría alineado, llegando en determinados momentos a mostrarse claramente hostil hacia el acusado y su representación procesal, posicionamiento concretado en los interrogatorios a los que el Presidente de la Sala sometió a los acusados y testigos que secundaron la versión de los mismos. En definitiva, que se extralimitó en su función de dirigir los debates, llegando a asumir la responsabilidad de interrogar por sí mismo a acusados y testigos, e incluso a reprender al letrado del recurrente. Pues bien, el TS ha acogido el motivo, casando la sentencia y declarando su nulidad, con reposición de las actuaciones al comienzo del juicio para que sea nuevamente celebrado con otros Magistrados. En su fundamentación jurídica expone la Sala la doctrina sobre el deber del uso moderado de la facultad prevista en el Conforme autoriza tal precepto en su párrafo segundo, el Presidente, por sí o a excitación de cualquiera de los miembros del Tribunal, podrá dirigir a los testigos las preguntas que estime conducentes para depurar los hechos sobre los que declaren, lo cual excluye la formulación de preguntas de contenido incriminatorio que pudieran complementar la actuación de la acusación. Es decir, no tratándose de incorporar nuevos presupuestos fácticos, sino de abundar en el esclarecimiento y precisión de los hechos nucleares objeto del debate, el Presidente, en afán de depurar los mismos, podrá efectuar preguntas, complementarias en cierto modo de las formuladas por las partes, al objeto de una mejor y más real configuración del acaecer histórico, sin que ello pueda interpretarse como una vulneración de la imparcialidad. La fidelidad al principio acusatorio no puede exasperarse de tal modo que reduzca al Juzgador a un papel absolutamente pasivo, incapaz de efectuar alguna pregunta clarificativa y dilucidante. Sin embargo, se constata que el desarrollo del plenario de la presente causa conoció una serie de episodios que no pueden calificarse como las vicisitudes propias de la dirección de los debates, o como el deseo por parte de los Magistrados de precisar matices afectantes al verdadero alcance de los hechos, cuando el Presidente del Tribunal dirigió hasta un total de 78 preguntas a quienes secundaban una postura contraria a la de la acusación, alguna de las cuales contenían juicios de valor -interrogatorios que no se produjeron con los testigos que sostuvieron la tesis del MF-, lo que revela que la Sala asumió tal tesis acusatoria como cierta. Por otro lado, también consta que reprendió al letrado cuando manifestaba su protesta en los siguientes términos: "cuando yo hablo, usted se calle, cuando yo interrumpo, usted se calla y retoma la palabra cuando se la conceda y no me vuelva a rebatir. Lo que he oído, lo he oído yo y eso que acaba usted de decir es mentira…”. Expresiones estas y comportamiento del Presidente durante los interrogatorios de los acusados y testigos que deben considerarse como determinantes de una pérdida de imparcialidad y neutralidad, proscritos por nuestra jurisprudencia.


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