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importante sentencia del tribunal supremo sobre custodia compartida

Posted on August 8, 2013 at 6:14 PM

Sentencia Nº: 257/2013 
Fecha Sentencia: 29/04/2013
Recurso Nº: 2525/2011
Fallo/Acuerdo: Sentencia Estimando Parcialmente
Votación y Fallo: 03/04/2013
Ponente Excmo. Sr. D.: José Antonio Seijas Quintana
Secretaría de Sala: Ilmo. Sr. D. José María Ramallo Seisdedos

La Sala Primera del Tribunal Supremo ha fijado doctrina en torno a la interpretación de los apartados 5, 6 y 7 del artículo 92 del Código Civil en lo relativo a los presupuestos que han de concurrir y valorarse para que pueda adoptarse, en interés del menor, el régimen de guarda y custodia compartida.

La sentencia, de la que ha sido ponente el magistrado Seijas Quintana, considera en primer lugar que la Audiencia Provincial, que denegó el régimen de guarda compartida en el asunto que ha llegado a casación, partió para tomar su decisión de que el régimen de guarda y custodia compartida es algo excepcional, mostrando una posicióninicialmente contraria a este régimen y considerando “como problemas lo que son virtudes de este régimen como la exigencia de un alto grado de dedicación por parte de los padres y la necesidad de una gran disposición de éstos a colaborar en su ejecución”. También reprocha a la sentencia recurrida que no fundara su decisión “en el interés del menor, al que no hace alusión alguna, y que debe tenerse necesariamente  en cuenta en los litigios sobre guarda y custodia compartida”.

La Sala recuerda que tras la sentencia del Tribunal Constitucional 185/2002, de 17 de octubre, la adopción del régimen de guarda y custodia compartida ya no depende del informe favorable del Fiscal sino, únicamente, de la valoración que merezca al Juez la adecuación de dicha medida al interés del menor, siendo punto de partida que la guarda y custodia compartida no es lo excepcional sino que debe ser la regla general siempre que no resulte perjudicial para el menor, pues “el mantenimiento de la potestad conjunta resulta sin duda la mejor solución para el menor en cuanto le permite seguir relacionándose establemente con ambos padres”.

Sentados estos postulados, la Sala concluye que la adopción de la medida de la guarda conjunta, además de exigir petición de parte (de ambos progenitores o de al menos uno de ellos), requiere la constatación de que esta no resulta perjudicial sino conveniente para el interés del menor, para lo que deben concurrir determinados requisitos expuestos con reiteración por la Sala y que nuevamente se afirman en la sentencia con valor de doctrina jurisprudencial.

Estos requisitos son los siguientes: la práctica anterior de los progenitores en sus relaciones con el menor y sus aptitudes personales; los deseos manifestados por los menores competentes; el número de hijos; el cumplimiento por parte de los progenitores de sus deberes en relación con los hijos y el respeto mutuo en sus relaciones personales; el resultado de los informes exigidos legalmente; y, en definitiva, cualquier otro que permita a los menores una vida adecuada en una convivencia que forzosamente deberá ser más compleja que la que se lleva a cabo cuando los progenitores conviven, sin que la mera constatación de que el régimen de guarda y custodia se adapta mejor al interés de los progenitores resulte suficiente para deducir que se adapta mejor al interés del menor, que es el que debe primar.

En el caso concreto que vuelve, la Sala casa y anula la sentencia recurrida únicamente en lo que se refiere a la denegación de la guarda y custodia compartida de la hija menor del matrimonio, pero mantiene dicho pronunciamiento, si bien por razones distintas de las que señala la sentencia recurrida.

Categories: custodia compartida

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